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In The News

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Joni E. Finney

    University endowments have remained tax-exempt. But that appears likely to change under the tax proposal backed by President Trump and congressional Republicans. 

    Some schools also may resort to tuition increases to pay for the tax, said Faculty Affiliate Joni E. Finney, director of the Institute for Research on Higher Education at Penn.

    “That further exacerbates the problem we are trying to address,” Finney said.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Werbach
    The price of Bitcoin has soared to more than $15,000, and now investors can trade bitcoin futures on the public market. 

    “Clearly there is a speculative frenzy going on, which doesn’t necessarily tell us at all why it’s going on or where it’s going to go from here,” says Faculty Affiliate Kevin Werbach.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Peter Cappelli

    How can workers hire more minorities and women? The answer is simple and embarrassing, and it’s been well-documented by Faculty Affiliate Peter Cappelli. Employers don’t go find the talent. Cappelli says there are two other answers to “the talent shortage: employers fail to train and develop both employees and new hires, meaning they have no internal pipeline, and employers refuse to pay market rates to hire the talent they need.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Laura W. Perna
    Graduate students across the country are staging walkouts and otherwise speaking out in protest of a provision in the tax reform legislation passed by the U.S. House of Representatives that could potentially add thousands of dollars to their tax bills.

    Faculty Affiliate Laura Perna discusses the potential impacts of eliminating a tax break on graduate school tuition waivers.
  • Professor Atul Gupta
    Faculty Affiliate Atul Gupta’s study entitled “Estimating Effects of Public Insurance Expansion for Adults: Evidence from California Hospitals” asked what happens when people suddenly get access to insurance coverage.

    Read more about the positive findings here:
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Cary Coglianese

    A major decision on the way the U.S. government collects information about race and ethnicity through the census and other surveys was expected to be announced by the Trump administration.

    “To the extent that an administration were to show racial animus and to make decisions about the statistical classification or the questions on surveys that relate to race in a manner that was motivated by racial animus, that would be clearly illegal and unconstitutional,” Faculty Affiliate Cary Coglianese says.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Susan M. Wachter
    San Diego was among the top three cities in the U.S. with the biggest annual home price increases in September, said a key real estate index released Tuesday.
    Faculty Affiliate Susan Wachter said San Diego’s price increases show steady job growth but, like much of the nation, a lack of homes for sale.
    “Every job doesn’t come along with a new house. That’s the bottom line,” she said. “Supply doesn’t necessarily respond to demand, and it hasn’t.”
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jennifer Blouin
    Faculty Affiliate Jennifer Blouin comments on the Republican tax plan that aims to cut corporate taxes in order to incentivize spending on jobs for the middle class. 

    “How much of that $3 trillion is likely to come back to be used to hire folks, invest in research and development, build new plant facilities and manufacturing? I would suspect its fairly low,” says Faculty Affiliate Jennifer Blouin. 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Werbach

    As interest grows, faculty and staff at the top business schools are under pressure to allocate more time and resources to this new area of technology. Kevin Werbach, associate professor of legal studies and business ethics at Wharton, is researching regulation of cryptocurrencies.

    “A lot of people think tech overcomes law which is a gross oversimplification. We need to figure out control and regulation,” Werbach told CNBC.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Daniel Polsky
    When the fees paid to healthcare providers by the Medicaid insurance program for the poor go up, appointments with primary care doctors suddenly become more available to Medicaid beneficiaries – and the opposite happens when fees go down, according to a recent U.S. study by Faculty Affiliate Daniel Polsky. 

    “As funding declines it threatens the breadth of provider participation in Medicaid,” he said.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Werbach

    The Justice Department is suing to block AT&T’s proposed deal for Time Warner Inc., saying the deal could lead to higher costs and less choice for U.S. consumers.

    Comcast was prevented from engaging in some of that same behavior when the Philadelphia cable giant bought NBCUniversal in 2011. But those restrictions on Comcast are set to expire in 2018.

    “It’s pretty clear that the Justice Department is taking a different approach to AT&T/Time Warner than it did with Comcast/NBCU,” said Faculty Affiliate Kevin Werbach.

    “The tide has turned in antitrust with [the Justice Department] being more skeptical of media and technology deals,” he said. Werbach said it was “entirely possible” that a Hillary Clinton administration also would have blocked an AT&T/Time Warner deal.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jeremy Siegel
    St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank president James Bullard joined Faculty Affiliate Jeremy Siegel for a wide-ranging conversation about the future of interest rates, inflation, the state of the economy, overall monetary policy, the possible over-valuation of stock prices — and more — on “Behind the Markets,” on Wharton Business Radio on SiriusXM channel 111. Bullard oversees the Eighth Federal Reserve District, which includes all of Arkansas and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee.
  • Ethan Mollick is the Edward B. and Shirley R. Shils Assistant Professor of Management at the Wharton School of the Univers...
    Crowdfunding has expanded to being a great place to invest money or help new products come to market by pre-purchasing. The Crowdfunding market saw over 87 Billion dollars exchanged in the market in 2016. This market has attracted scammers whose only purpose is to rip off with good hearts.

    Faculty Affiliate Ethan Mollick in 2015 found that 9% of projects on Kickstarter fail to deliver as promised to their backers, and this number does include fraudulent projects. Based on this, consumers should closely watch for scams. 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Volpp
    The first drug with a sensor embedded in a pill that alerts doctors when patients have taken their medications was approved by the Food and Drug Administration, raiding issues involving privacy, cost, and whether patients really want caregivers looking over their shoulders.

    Faculty Affiliate Kevin Volpp says that the technology could make a big impact on non-adherence, since 40 - 45 percent of people with common cardiovascular and other chronic diseases such as diabetes do not take their medications as prescribed.

    “That’s a big deal because medication non-adherence is a huge public-health challenge in the United States,” he said.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Daniel Polsky

    When the fees paid to healthcare providers by Medicaid go up, appointments with primary care doctors suddenly become more available to Medicaid beneficiaries – and the opposite happens when fees go down, according to a recent U.S. study.

    “As funding declines it threatens the breadth of provider participation in Medicaid,” said Faculty Affiliate Daniel Polsky.

    “I don’t want to overestimate its result on patient welfare, but I think it’s a good thing to have broad choices of doctors when you’re looking to make a new patient appointment,” he said.

  • Faculty Affiliate Michael Knoll.
    The recently unveiled Republican tax reform plan has been particularly unpopular with many in the real estate industry. The plan caps the mortgage interest deduction at $500,000 for new purchases and the property tax deduction at $10,000, but eliminates deductions for state and local tax payments. Faculty Affiliate Michael Knoll, co-director of the Center for Tax Law and Policy at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, discussed what the bill would mean for individual homeowners and for the housing market.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jennifer Blouin

    Faculty Affiliate Jennifer Blouin says it may be hard to tell. “The trouble is, we really don’t have a good way to measure what the effects on growth are, because once we have the rate cut, other things start happening over time,” she says.

    “We have natural disasters. We have failures in commodity markets. The whole credit crisis. And so once you mix that into the fold, how can you predict what the aggregate effect of just that piece of tax legislation is? And I would argue we really don’t know.”

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Michael Useem

    Tuesday was the “worst day of my business life,” former General Electric vice chairman Bob Wright told CNBC, after shares plunged for the second day in a row.

    Faculty Affiliate Michael Useem, a Wharton professor and director of the school’s Center for Leadership and Change Management, said new CEO John Flannery’s work is going to be extremely difficult.

    “A remake of this scale … it’s like turning a battleship. It’s going to take some serious time,” he said. “With a tough-minded executive in charge you can do it and the betting is probably going to be on Flannery doing it,” he added.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Arthur van Benthem
    Faculty Affiliate Arthur van Benthem says yes, states can mitigate damage done by the federal government.

    “Given the state of affairs in Washington, D.C., states should adopt their own policies to promote renewable energy and limit the emissions of greenhouse gases,” he says.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Lynn Wu
    Early and developing companies push digital transformation through managerial directive or by technology provision. In contrast, maturing companies tend to pull digital transformation by cultivating the conditions that are ripe for transformation to occur. 

    Research from Faculty Affiliate Lynn Wu further explores these differences and how they impact employee performance:
  • Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown.
     Trump announced Thursday he would not name Yellen — the first woman to hold the post — for a second term when her tenure expires at the end of January. 

    “This is stunningly unusual,” says Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown, a financial historian who studies the Fed at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Todd Sinai
    The tax bill released by Republicans on Thursday proposed capping the mortgage-interest deduction, limiting the portion of a mortgage on which people can deduct their interest at $500,000, down from the current level of $1 million. 

    Though Faculty Affiliate Todd Sinai says that the deduction doesn’t appear to encourage homeownership however, which it was ostensibly designed to do. 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Franklin
    How will China’s leadership handle the challenges of the world’s second-largest economy, especially within its chaotic financial system?

    Faculty Affiliate Franklin Allen questions Xi’s appetite for painful reforms that are needed to rebalance China’s economy away from its longtime heavy reliance on construction investment and exports. “Xi has established tremendous political power. Now the question is how much of that he will turn into economic reforms,” Allen says.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jennifer Blouin
    The Republican tax plan going through Congress would give a break to companies such as Apple that have spent years dodging taxes. They could bring the money home by paying a nominal tax. The bill would also sharply cut the tax rate companies such as Apple pay, says Faculty Affiliate Jennifer Blouin.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Joseph Gyourko
    “Paying for dirt” refers to the ballooning land costs that now comprise an unprecedented part of house values, such as in severely unaffordable metropolitan markets. This has created an environment where affordability is impossible. 

    Faculty Affiliate Joseph Gyourko has researched how home costs and the costs of construction are affected. 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Mauro Guillen

    MSCI’s decision to keep Argentina in the Frontier category “is kind of a slap in the face” for the country, said Faculty Affiliate Mauro Guillen. It will hurt because “investment banks are influential and they move money. I don’t think this is good, and I wouldn’t have done it.”
  • Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown.

    John Taylor has a complicated history with the U.S. Federal Reserve that could force him into a hard pivot if he’s selected as its next leader.

    The Stanford University economist, who is on President Donald Trump’s short list to lead the central bank, wrote the monetary policy rule that Fed officials use as a constant reference, and many of the institution’s own economists are schooled in his ideas. Some critics have said that the so-called Taylor Rule could lead officials to make mistakes because it is not forward-looking and doesn’t incorporate key forces shaping the economy. 

    Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown has commented on the issue, saying that “John Taylor could be one of the most disruptive Fed chairs in its history, if he can persuade the internal actors within the system that all this time, he was right, and they were wrong.”

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Peter Cappelli
    If by announcing a search for a second headquarters Amazon intended to play one city against another and generate millions of dollars in free publicity, it has worked. Many observers believe Amazon has long known where it wants to be — or at least has never seriously considered more than two or three specific sites — since there are no more than a handful of cities that fit the requisite criteria. So what is Amazon thinking about when looking for a location?

    “For most businesses, the issue of location choice now is driven by labor: Will we be able to attract the white collar skills we need?” says Faculty Affiliate Peter Cappelli, director of School’s Center for Human Resources. “For unskilled or semi-skilled jobs, will we be able to get it at a price we want to pay? No business goes to the Silicon Valley or New York City because it is cheap; they go because of the labor supply.”

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Chris William Sanchirico
    In his OpEd for the Hill, Faculty Affiliate Chris Sanchirico explains some basic economic principals as they relate to findings from the CEA and Trump’s tax plan. 

    “The CEA’s presentation of economic science is largely pretense. No one knows how much employees would benefit from a corporate tax reduction, and no one has a good answer to why directly lowering wage taxes wouldn’t better serve employees — assuming, that is, that this is the goal.”
  • Faculty Affiliate Professor Michael Knoll.
    The Trump administration announced the outline of their tax reform plan last week. While many details have not been released, their blueprint includes reducing the corporate rate from 35% to 20%, eliminating the Estate Tax and the Alternative Minimum Tax, reducing the number tax brackets, and increasing the standard deduction. Faculty Affiliate Michael Knoll comments on the plan for WHYY Radio, adding that a reduction in corporate tax rate is widely agreed upon among economists, but the lost revenue will have to be made up elsewhere.


  • <h3>National Center for Education Statistics</h3><p><strong><img width="400" height="80" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/400/height/80/479_nces.rev.1407787656.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image479 lw_align_right" data-max-w="400" data-max-h="80"/>The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.</strong> NCES is located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences. NCES has an extensive Statistical Standards Program that consults and advises on methodological and statistical aspects involved in the design, collection, and analysis of data collections in the Center. To learn more about the NCES, <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/about/" target="_blank">click here</a>.</p><p> Quick link to NCES Data Tools: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4</a></p><p> Quick link to Quick Tables and Figures: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCES Fast Facts (Note: The primary purpose of the Fast Facts website is to provide users with concise information on a range of educational issues, from early childhood to adult learning.): <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/#</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Bureau of Economic Research (Public Use Data Archive)</h3><p><img width="180" height="43" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/43/478_nber.rev.1407530465.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image478 lw_align_right" data-max-w="329" data-max-h="79"/>Founded in 1920, the <strong>National Bureau of Economic Research</strong> is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.</p><p> Quick Link to <strong>Public Use Data Archive</strong>: <a href="http://www.nber.org/data/" target="_blank">http://www.nber.org/data/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>NOAA National Climatic Data Center</h3><p><img width="200" height="198" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image483 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 3x" data-max-w="954" data-max-h="945"/>NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation’s treasure of <strong>climate and historical weather data and information</strong>.</p><p> Quick link to home page: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCDC’s climate and weather datasets, products, and various web pages and resources: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links</a></p><p> Quick link to Text & Map Search: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Congressional Budget Office</h3><p><img width="180" height="180" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/180/380_cbo-logo.rev.1406822035.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image380 lw_align_right" data-max-w="180" data-max-h="180"/>Since its founding in 1974, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process.</p><p> The agency is strictly nonpartisan and conducts objective, impartial analysis, which is evident in each of the dozens of reports and hundreds of cost estimates that its economists and policy analysts produce each year. CBO does not make policy recommendations, and each report and cost estimate discloses the agency’s assumptions and methodologies. <strong>CBO provides budgetary and economic information in a variety of ways and at various points in the legislative process.</strong> Products include baseline budget projections and economic forecasts, analysis of the President’s budget, cost estimates, analysis of federal mandates, working papers, and more.</p><p> Quick link to Products page: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products</a></p><p> Quick link to Topics: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/topics" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/topics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The World Bank Data (U.S.)</h3><p><img width="130" height="118" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image484 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1406" data-max-h="1275"/>The <strong>World Bank</strong> provides World Development Indicators, Surveys, and data on Finances and Climate Change.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states" target="_blank">http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>USDA Nutrition Assistance Data</h3><p><img width="180" height="124" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image485 lw_align_right" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1233" data-max-h="850"/>Data and research regarding the following <strong>USDA Nutrition Assistance</strong> programs are available through this site:</p><ul><li>Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) </li><li>Food Distribution Programs </li><li>School Meals </li><li>Women, Infants and Children </li></ul><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics" target="_blank">http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The Penn World Table</h3><p> The Penn World Table provides purchasing power parity and national income accounts converted to international prices for 189 countries/territories for some or all of the years 1950-2010.</p><p><a href="https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt71/pwt71_form.php" target="_blank">Quick link.</a> </p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>MapStats</h3><p> A feature of FedStats, MapStats allows users to search for <strong>state, county, city, congressional district, or Federal judicial district data</strong> (demographic, economic, and geographic).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/" target="_blank">http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Internal Revenue Service: Tax Statistics</h3><p><img width="155" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image486 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg 2x" data-max-w="463" data-max-h="596"/>Find statistics on business tax, individual tax, charitable and exempt organizations, IRS operations and budget, and income (SOI), as well as statistics by form, products, publications, papers, and other IRS data.</p><p> Quick link to <strong>Tax Statistics, where you will find a wide range of tables, articles, and data</strong> that describe and measure elements of the U.S. tax system: <a href="http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2" target="_blank">http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Aviation Administration: Accident & Incident Data</h3><p><img width="100" height="100" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image80 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 3x" data-max-w="550" data-max-h="550"/>The NTSB issues an accident report following each investigation. These reports are available online for reports issued since 1996, with older reports coming online soon. The reports listing is sortable by the event date, report date, city, and state.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/" target="_blank">http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>HUD State of the Cities Data Systems</h3><p><strong><img width="200" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image482 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 3x" data-max-w="612" data-max-h="613"/>The SOCDS provides data for individual Metropolitan Areas, Central Cities, and Suburbs.</strong> It is a portal for non-national data made available through a number of outside institutions (e.g. Census, BLS, FBI and others).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html" target="_blank">http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED®)</h3><p><strong><img width="180" height="79" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/79/481_fred-logo.rev.1407788243.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image481 lw_align_right" data-max-w="222" data-max-h="97"/>An online database consisting of more than 72,000 economic data time series from 54 national, international, public, and private sources.</strong> FRED®, created and maintained by Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, goes far beyond simply providing data: It combines data with a powerful mix of tools that help the user understand, interact with, display, and disseminate the data.</p><p> Quick link to data page: <a href="http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series" target="_blank">http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>