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In The News

  • Faculty Affiliate Mary Hunter-McDonnell
    Faculty Affiliate Mary-Hunter McDonnell writes for Quartz on Google and its two prominent lawsuits from former employees: a gender-pay lawsuit filed by women who claimed they were paid less than their male counterparts and a lawsuit alleging discrimination against conservative white men.

    Her research findings suggest that the companies punished most harshly when they are found liable for discrimination have a high status and reputations for being good employers. What are the implications of this for Google?
  • Faculty Affiliate Pinar Yildirim.

     A recent paper by Faculty Affiliate Pinar Yildirim explores the increasingly common scenario of working alongside robots.

    It suggests that, at the moment at least, there is often a fall in efficiency and productivity in such scenarios because the introduction of automation destabilizes human teams.

    “The attraction of machines and robots is the potential increase in efficiency and the reduction in the cost of getting things done,” the research explains. “On the other hand, you have to think about the behavioral reactions of men and women who are now working alongside machines instead of humans.”

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Ezekiel J. Emanuel
    That the US health care system is excessively costly is not news. The controversy involves 3 connected questions: (1) what are the real drivers of high costs, (2) what policies have the highest probability of reducing those costs, and (3) what are the consequences of not reducing excessive health care costs?

    In this article for the JAMA Network, Faculty Affiliate Ezekiel Emanuel explores the true cost of health care in America.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Werbach
    There is a rapidly growing market for the use of game-like techniques for motivating employees. Recent studies show growth for so-called gamification software, some of which allows workers to earn points and badges by completing certain tasks or performing well.

    Often companies don’t actually lower compensation but push workers to do more for the same pay by using games and game-like incentives.

    “Not only did [employees go] above and beyond their work responsibilities,” wrote Faculty Affiliate Kevin Werbach,“but a large number of them described the process as enjoyable and even addicting.”
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Gilles Duranton
    Philadelphia officials are adding their voices to a bipartisan chorus of vexed state and city officials across the nation lambasting President Donald J. Trump’s $200 billion infrastructure spending proposal.

    Trump says the plan will leverage an additional $1.3 trillion in state, local, and private investment, but experts say is little more than a legislative Big Dig — a loud, confusing mess. “It’s just bizarre. It’s a complete alternative reality,” says Faculty Affiliate Gilles Duranton. “These are just numbers that are being pulled out of thin air.”
  • Faculty Affiliate Vincent Reina

    On WNYC’s “The Takeaway,” Faculty Affiliate Vincent Reina weighed in on Carson’s leadership and the questions the secretary faces from lack of policy reforms to the purchase of a $31,000 dining set for his office.

  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jeremy Siegel
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Olivia S. Mitchell
    Research by Faculty Affiliate Olivia S. Michell has inspired a new startup that is building a way for consumers to more easily buy what has notoriously been a hard sell: annuity contracts, both those that create an immediate income stream and others that produce income years down the road.
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu
    Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu discusses her new research findings on government aid to individuals and employment figures in a recent radio interview with KJZZ. 

    She looked at employment in Alaska and compared it to employment in states that were most similar to Alaska, and found that on average people did not stop working when they received a government check, effectively “free money”, from the state’s oil fund. 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Ezekiel J. Emanuel
    Why don’t we mandate the flu vaccination? This is a question that Faculty Affiliate Ezekiel Emanuel poses in his New York Times Op-Ed. 

    “Starting next year, we should provide the vaccine free in all schools, preschools and day care centers — and require that all children under 18 get it before Thanksgiving.

    What are we waiting for? Must more children die unnecessarily?”

  • Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown.
    Marijuana is a booming business in the United States, but its growth is hampered by the paradox between state and federal policies toward the drug. 

    Faculty Affiliate Peter Conti-Brown explains how federal banking regulations force this cash-based enterprise to operate in a “gray market.” 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Cary Coglianese
    Faculty Affiliate Cary Coglianese discusses why state and local governments must consider the potential legal risks of their climate change policies.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor John MacDonald
    Poor sections of Kensington/Allegheny, the Southwest, and North Philly experienced the most significant decrease in crime when the conditions of lots improved, said coauthor John MacDonald, a University of Pennsylvania professor of criminology and sociology. 

    Macdonald said the findings carry powerful implications for Philly and other cities struggling with abandonment and crime. The research quantifies the public health and safety payoff that comes when blighted lots are cleaned up.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Kevin Werbach
    What is Ajit Pai’s strategy at the FCC? Faculty Affiliate Kevin Werbach, a former FCC staffer, says “he’s going through, pretty systematically, to reverse rules put in place during the Obama administration.” 
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Olivia S. Mitchell
    Congress has decreed that people should have more time to pay back their 401(k) loans if they lose or leave their jobs. That extension isn’t enough to make 401(k) loans safe, though. You’re still risking your retirement security every time you take money out of your plan.

    About 40% of 401(k) savers borrow from their plans in a given five-year period, and 90% of the loans are paid back, according to Faculty Affiliate Olivia S. Mitchell.

    She is concerned that the longer grace period could lure more people into a false sense of security, leading to more loans - and more defaults. Making loans more attractive “is not the approach you want if your primary goal is retirement security,” Mitchell says.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Mark V. Pauly
    Faculty Affiliates Mark V. Pauly and Kevin Volpp write about Trump’s detrimental impact on Medicare in their Op-Ed for Marketplace. 

    “President Trump has proposed some modest steps to slow the apparently inexorable growth in Medicare entitlement spending, breaking with his campaign promise to leave alone government-funded programs for seniors.

    Although there is often little correlation between presidential budget proposals and budgets eventually approved by Congress, the administration’s budget, which calls for reducing Medicare spending by about $270 billion over 10 years, may start the conversation about what to do to slow growth in Medicare spending.

    While cuts in provider payments in some areas will be significant, the administration has left alone the harder questions of whether we can afford to provide generous Medicare benefits to all seniors and to continue to make coverage decisions largely without considering cost.”

  • Faculty Affiliate David Zaring
    Faculty Affiliate David Zaring writes an Op-Ed for the Regulatory Review on deregulation in the Trump Administration: 

    Congress’s use of the Congressional Review Act (CRA) to reverse a panoply of Obama Administration rules has been the most important way it has pursued deregulation in the first year of the Trump Administration. But the effort to keep using it to deregulate—which is ongoing—would really take the statute beyond anywhere it has been used before.
  • Howard Kunreuther
    “It’s very clear that things are getting worse now than they have been in the past,” said Faculty Affiliate Howard Kunreuther, Wharton professor of operations, information and decisions and co-director of the Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center. “Particularly in Houston with respect to Hurricane Harvey, a lot of the losses from these disasters are now coming from urban flooding and things that had never been on the agenda before.”
  • Faculty Affiliate Professor Peter Cappelli. 
    As Microsoft undergoes an ongoing gender discrimination lawsuit, Faculty Affiliate Peter Cappelli explains why HR and employee issues may conflict. 

    Sexual harassment cases can be especially tricky, as HR is responsible for investigating a behavior whose legal definition often doesn’t match its conventional one. “Part of the problem is what many people believe counts as sexual harassment is not the legal definition of sexual harassment,” says Cappelli, director of Wharton’s Center for Human Resources. A YouGov poll in November found that 17% of Americans ages 18–29 felt that a man asking a woman out for a drink could be an instance of sexual harassment. Legal precedent, meanwhile, tends to define sexual harassment as occurring either when a supervisor requests sex in exchange for a subordinate being promoted or not being fired, or when an employee is subject to behavior of a sexual nature that’s so pervasive it creates a hostile work environment.
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.
    A lack of competition among employers gives businesses outsize power over workers, including the ability to tamp down on pay.

    In a new paper by Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu, she argues that, across different cities and different fields, hiring is concentrated among a relatively small number of businesses, which may have given managers the ability to keep wages lower than if there were more companies vying for talent.

    This could have important implications for how we think about antitrust, unions, and the minimum wage.
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.
    Are large corporate employers suppressing wages? A new paper co-authored by Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu analyzes data from the website CareerBuilder.com, breaking down job postings by commuting zone and occupation. She finds that for occupations that have fewer employers posting on the website within a commuting zone, wages are lower than for occupations where lots of companies are looking for workers.
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.

    Results of a new study conducted by Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu show that wages are actually higher in places where the concentration of employers is lower, even when correcting for the health of the local economy.

    So the large companies in those labor markets are exercising a kind of monopoly power, except instead of using that power to raise prices on their products or services for consumers, they’re lowering wages for employees who have few other places to work. 

    Marinescu explains that the same thing happens in healthcare, when insurance companies say they’ll lower prices by squeezing doctors if allowed to get bigger through acquisitions.

    “The argument for the merger would be: thanks to the merger, they were going to be able to get lower prices from medical providers, and that’s why the merger would benefit consumers,” she says. “It creates anti-competitive pressure in the labor market.”

  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.
    Government figures show that after Amazon opens a storage depot, local wages for warehouse workers fall by an average of 3%. In places where Amazon operates, such workers earn about 10% less than similar workers employed elsewhere.

    Findings from a paper by Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu show that a relatively small number of employers account for a large share of job opportunities in many American communities. In places where such labour-market concentration is highest, wages tend to be lower. These findings suggest that if Amazon is the only major employer in the cities and towns where it operates, the company can offer wages that are well below those of its competitors.
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.
    Consolidation isn’t only a consumer problem - it may also reduce competition for workers, especially outside big cities, holding down wages. Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu’s work explores more in this New York Times article. 
  • Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu.
    As industries get more concentrated, workers have fewer employment options—and less leverage to get a raise.

    A paper co-authored by Faculty Affiliate Ioana Marinescu looked at job vacancies posted on CareerBuilder, the largest online jobs board in the United States, between 2010 and 2013.

    She found that most labor markets in this country are highly concentrated, with very few potential employers in most areas for workers to choose from, and that this holds down the level of worker pay.

  • Faculty Affiliate Peter Cappelli.
    As countries around the world grapple with the gender pay gap, some places in America have come up with a new way to tackle the problem.

    Their solution? Bar employers from asking job applicants what they currently earn, so new salary offers are not based on the previous figure.

    Faculty Affiliate Peter Cappelli says he thinks the legislation could have other unintended consequences.

    For example, if job candidates don’t volunteer salaries during the discussions, firms are likely to assume their pay is lower than it is.

    Cappelli says this effect is likely to be especially pronounced for women and other groups that are statistically likely to have lower pay.

    “The phrase for this is statistical discrimination,” he says. “Now we’ve got this quirky situation where it’s actually likely to make things worse.”
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Mauro Guillen
    At this year’s World Economic Forum held in Davos, Switzerland, in late January, a financial crisis was one of the key topics among economists and bankers. Although chances are still slim, they said the global economy and financial markets have become more vulnerable as a result of prolonged loose monetary policies. They are particularly concerned financial authorities are unprepared to deal with the next crisis

    Faculty Affiliate Mauro Guillen commented on the recent economic changes: “it seems investors are reading the good news on the U.S. and global economies as if they were negative. Stronger growth, declining unemployment and rising wages could be the harbingers of inflation, which in turn might prompt central banks to accelerate interest rate increase, and thus bring the era of low rates to an abrupt end.”
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Mark V. Pauly
    Walgreens is reportedly in talks to acquire Valley Forge’s AmerisourceBergen. Walgreens already owns 26 percent of Amerisource and may move to take over the rest of the company.

    “When firms do not know what to do about the future they tend to circle the wagons by merging,” Faculty Affiliate Mark V. Pauly, Wharton health care management expert, told Philadelphia magazine. “It does not help that much based on evidence, but you have to do something.”

    To Pauly, Walgreens’ potential deal with AmerisourceBergen wouldn’t be daring at all, just purely defensive. “This seems like a fairly safe thing for Walgreens to do after buying and closing all those stores from Rite Aid,” he said.

  • Professor Ivana Marinescu
    The term “intern” is one that has drawn a lot of discussion over the last several years. It is generally associated with someone in college who works during a specific period of time with a company as a way to gain experience. But, over time, companies have started offering “internships” to people just out of college. A few years ago, a court case decided that if someone was doing the work of a regular employee, they couldn’t be called an “intern,” and they had to be paid. Now, the Labor Department has relaxed those rules a bit and, therefore, has allowed the unpaid internship to return. To discuss this change, Knowledge@Wharton Business Radio’s Host Dan Loney interviewed Michael Schmidt, a labor and employment attorney with the firm of Cozen O’Connor, and Ioana Marinescu, an Assistant Professor of Economics, Faculty Affiliate of the Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative and a Faculty Research Fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Penn Wharton PPI Faculty Affiliate, Professor Jeremy Siegel
    “People who buy this morning a year from now are going to say, ‘OK, I think I’ve got a good price,’” said Faculty Affiliate Jeremy Siegel on CNBC as he discussed the recent tumble of market prices this week.


  • <h3>Federal Aviation Administration: Accident & Incident Data</h3><p><img width="100" height="100" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image80 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 3x" data-max-w="550" data-max-h="550"/>The NTSB issues an accident report following each investigation. These reports are available online for reports issued since 1996, with older reports coming online soon. The reports listing is sortable by the event date, report date, city, and state.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/" target="_blank">http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>MapStats</h3><p> A feature of FedStats, MapStats allows users to search for <strong>state, county, city, congressional district, or Federal judicial district data</strong> (demographic, economic, and geographic).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/" target="_blank">http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The World Bank Data (U.S.)</h3><p><img width="130" height="118" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image484 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1406" data-max-h="1275"/>The <strong>World Bank</strong> provides World Development Indicators, Surveys, and data on Finances and Climate Change.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states" target="_blank">http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>NOAA National Climatic Data Center</h3><p><img width="200" height="198" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image483 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 3x" data-max-w="954" data-max-h="945"/>NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation’s treasure of <strong>climate and historical weather data and information</strong>.</p><p> Quick link to home page: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCDC’s climate and weather datasets, products, and various web pages and resources: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links</a></p><p> Quick link to Text & Map Search: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED®)</h3><p><strong><img width="180" height="79" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/79/481_fred-logo.rev.1407788243.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image481 lw_align_right" data-max-w="222" data-max-h="97"/>An online database consisting of more than 72,000 economic data time series from 54 national, international, public, and private sources.</strong> FRED®, created and maintained by Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, goes far beyond simply providing data: It combines data with a powerful mix of tools that help the user understand, interact with, display, and disseminate the data.</p><p> Quick link to data page: <a href="http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series" target="_blank">http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Congressional Budget Office</h3><p><img width="180" height="180" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/180/380_cbo-logo.rev.1406822035.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image380 lw_align_right" data-max-w="180" data-max-h="180"/>Since its founding in 1974, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process.</p><p> The agency is strictly nonpartisan and conducts objective, impartial analysis, which is evident in each of the dozens of reports and hundreds of cost estimates that its economists and policy analysts produce each year. CBO does not make policy recommendations, and each report and cost estimate discloses the agency’s assumptions and methodologies. <strong>CBO provides budgetary and economic information in a variety of ways and at various points in the legislative process.</strong> Products include baseline budget projections and economic forecasts, analysis of the President’s budget, cost estimates, analysis of federal mandates, working papers, and more.</p><p> Quick link to Products page: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products</a></p><p> Quick link to Topics: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/topics" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/topics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Internal Revenue Service: Tax Statistics</h3><p><img width="155" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image486 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg 2x" data-max-w="463" data-max-h="596"/>Find statistics on business tax, individual tax, charitable and exempt organizations, IRS operations and budget, and income (SOI), as well as statistics by form, products, publications, papers, and other IRS data.</p><p> Quick link to <strong>Tax Statistics, where you will find a wide range of tables, articles, and data</strong> that describe and measure elements of the U.S. tax system: <a href="http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2" target="_blank">http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>USDA Nutrition Assistance Data</h3><p><img width="180" height="124" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image485 lw_align_right" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1233" data-max-h="850"/>Data and research regarding the following <strong>USDA Nutrition Assistance</strong> programs are available through this site:</p><ul><li>Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) </li><li>Food Distribution Programs </li><li>School Meals </li><li>Women, Infants and Children </li></ul><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics" target="_blank">http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Bureau of Economic Research (Public Use Data Archive)</h3><p><img width="180" height="43" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/43/478_nber.rev.1407530465.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image478 lw_align_right" data-max-w="329" data-max-h="79"/>Founded in 1920, the <strong>National Bureau of Economic Research</strong> is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.</p><p> Quick Link to <strong>Public Use Data Archive</strong>: <a href="http://www.nber.org/data/" target="_blank">http://www.nber.org/data/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>HUD State of the Cities Data Systems</h3><p><strong><img width="200" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image482 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 3x" data-max-w="612" data-max-h="613"/>The SOCDS provides data for individual Metropolitan Areas, Central Cities, and Suburbs.</strong> It is a portal for non-national data made available through a number of outside institutions (e.g. Census, BLS, FBI and others).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html" target="_blank">http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The Penn World Table</h3><p> The Penn World Table provides purchasing power parity and national income accounts converted to international prices for 189 countries/territories for some or all of the years 1950-2010.</p><p><a href="https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt71/pwt71_form.php" target="_blank">Quick link.</a> </p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Center for Education Statistics</h3><p><strong><img width="400" height="80" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/400/height/80/479_nces.rev.1407787656.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image479 lw_align_right" data-max-w="400" data-max-h="80"/>The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.</strong> NCES is located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences. NCES has an extensive Statistical Standards Program that consults and advises on methodological and statistical aspects involved in the design, collection, and analysis of data collections in the Center. To learn more about the NCES, <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/about/" target="_blank">click here</a>.</p><p> Quick link to NCES Data Tools: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4</a></p><p> Quick link to Quick Tables and Figures: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCES Fast Facts (Note: The primary purpose of the Fast Facts website is to provide users with concise information on a range of educational issues, from early childhood to adult learning.): <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/#</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>