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Don’t Kick Him Out of School

December 11, 2014
Why investing in America’s young men of color is a social and economic imperative

Every year, thousands of children are expelled from preschool.[1] Yes, three- and four-year olds are forcefully removed from the classroom at this early age. From this, it is considerably difficult to ignore what our school discipline laws and regulations tell us about the alarming state of education and where it is headed. Unfortunately, too many of those expelled children – in fact, most of them – are boys of color.

By Jesus Perez C’16

The sad truth is that exclusionary policies all over the United States are disproportionately affecting boys and young men of color, which results in a school-to-prison pipeline. Overshadowed by plane crashes, immigration and a number of other important political conflicts, the educational outcomes of America’s children are not exactly at the top of the list for policymakers. While most of the laws governing education are made at the state, local, and school-district level, it is our responsibility to shine the spotlight on a population that has long been underserved – for America’s future and our global competitiveness depend on it.

Let’s talk about facts. Our young men of color – commonly designated as YMOC – are an at-risk population that includes Hispanic, African American, Asian American and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaskan Native males. This group of individuals is among the fastest-growing segments of our population, representing nearly half of all males under age 18 throughout the country.[2] Young boys on average are one to one and a half years behind girls in reading and writing abilities, and most boys in grades four through eight are twice as likely to be held back a grade[3] and up to ten times more likely to be diagnosed with serious emotional and behavioral disorders.[4] The gender gap is even more prevalent in disciplinary interventions: data shows boys are continuously suspended or expelled at higher rates than girls (see figure). When these young boys are removed from school, it adds to the many adverse conditions they already experience. They are already more likely to live in high-poverty neighborhoods[5] and a large portion of them live with only one parent. [6]  Due to the circumstances in which they live, they also tend to attend the lowest performing schools and don’t have the opportunity to have mentors in their lives. President Barack Obama may be the first person of color to become president in our nation’s history – but the disparities facing these young men remain alive and well.

Inevitably, our country’s future is inextricably linked to the success of these young men, especially with recent population changes. For example, demographic projections indicate that Latino males aged 10-24 will grow by 3.7 million between 2013 and 2040 while the white male population in that age category will actually decline by 2.6 million.[7] Recognizing America’s changing landscape has never been more necessary. Policies that cater to the communities of these young men are critical to ensuring that we keep them in school rather than charting a path to the juvenile justice system by suspending them or expelling them for minor offenses such as talking back to a teacher – as is the case in many school districts with zero-tolerance policies. An educated workforce is crucial to America’s global competitiveness, and we cannot stand idle as we push our own children out of school and other countries out-educate us. Perhaps surprisingly, exclusionary discipline policies affecting these young males can actually prove to be financially detrimental to school districts. Look no further than big states like California, where the Fresno Unified School District saw 32,180 school days missed due to suspensions, resulting in more than a million dollars lost in state revenue based on students’ average daily attendance.[8] Just like in these districts, there are millions of dollars being lost due to student suspensions all across the nation.

To fix this, we need a coalition. 

That’s where we come in. This summer, I have been working as a policy intern at the White House Initiative for Educational Excellence for Hispanics. The Initiative works with stakeholders in the private and public sector to advance a strategic policy and outreach agenda to tackle critical education challenges facing the Hispanic community, including the inadequate discipline policies that disproportionately impact young men of color like Hispanics. Because no federal dollars can be allocated to any single ethnic group, administration officials have put on their thinking caps to improve the educational outcomes of young men of color, and what they have come up with is nothing short of inspirational.

In February, President Obama launched My Brother’s Keeper, an initiative aimed at addressing opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color and ensuring that all young people can reach their full potential. Through this project, the President has leveraged the private and philanthropic sectors to invest in the best practices as well as encouraging states to reduce counterproductive policies like school suspensions and expulsions. Just last month, the President announced a partnership with sixty of the nation’s largest urban school districts through the Council of the Great City Schools that will create an eleven-point plan that stretches from early childhood to graduation, including the programs to reduce suspensions and expulsions. In the same vein, the private sector has announced multi-million dollar investments to create mentoring programs for boys and additional programs to address disparities in school climate. [9]

With that same spirit, all of us must invest in America’s education because future generations are counting on it – how can I invest, you ask? Not with your money, but rather with your time and energy by becoming a mentor in your community. You can join the President’s call for mentors here. In the words of my school’s founder Benjamin Franklin, keep in mind that “an investment in knowledge pays the best interest.”

 


[1] http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/053014_mbk_report.pdf

[2] http://www.census.gov/

[3] http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4

[4] http://www.ihep.org/assets/files/publications/m-r/(Brief)_Men_of_Color_Latinos.pdf

[5] http://www.hiponline.org/storage/documents/hip-menandboys-the-right-to-dream.pdf

[6] http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/053014_mbk_report.pdf

[7] http://www.hiponline.org/storage/documents/hip-menandboys-the-right-to-dream.pdf

[8] http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/The_School_Discipline_Consensus_Report.pdf

[9] http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/07/21/fact-sheet-president-obama-applauds-new-commitments-support-my-brother-s

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  • <h3>HUD State of the Cities Data Systems</h3><p><strong><img width="200" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image482 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 3x" data-max-w="612" data-max-h="613"/>The SOCDS provides data for individual Metropolitan Areas, Central Cities, and Suburbs.</strong> It is a portal for non-national data made available through a number of outside institutions (e.g. Census, BLS, FBI and others).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html" target="_blank">http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The World Bank Data (U.S.)</h3><p><img width="130" height="118" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image484 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1406" data-max-h="1275"/>The <strong>World Bank</strong> provides World Development Indicators, Surveys, and data on Finances and Climate Change.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states" target="_blank">http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Bureau of Economic Research (Public Use Data Archive)</h3><p><img width="180" height="43" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/43/478_nber.rev.1407530465.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image478 lw_align_right" data-max-w="329" data-max-h="79"/>Founded in 1920, the <strong>National Bureau of Economic Research</strong> is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.</p><p> Quick Link to <strong>Public Use Data Archive</strong>: <a href="http://www.nber.org/data/" target="_blank">http://www.nber.org/data/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The Penn World Table</h3><p> The Penn World Table provides purchasing power parity and national income accounts converted to international prices for 189 countries/territories for some or all of the years 1950-2010.</p><p><a href="https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt71/pwt71_form.php" target="_blank">Quick link.</a> </p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Aviation Administration: Accident & Incident Data</h3><p><img width="100" height="100" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image80 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 3x" data-max-w="550" data-max-h="550"/>The NTSB issues an accident report following each investigation. These reports are available online for reports issued since 1996, with older reports coming online soon. The reports listing is sortable by the event date, report date, city, and state.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/" target="_blank">http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>USDA Nutrition Assistance Data</h3><p><img width="180" height="124" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image485 lw_align_right" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1233" data-max-h="850"/>Data and research regarding the following <strong>USDA Nutrition Assistance</strong> programs are available through this site:</p><ul><li>Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) </li><li>Food Distribution Programs </li><li>School Meals </li><li>Women, Infants and Children </li></ul><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics" target="_blank">http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Center for Education Statistics</h3><p><strong><img width="400" height="80" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/400/height/80/479_nces.rev.1407787656.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image479 lw_align_right" data-max-w="400" data-max-h="80"/>The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.</strong> NCES is located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences. NCES has an extensive Statistical Standards Program that consults and advises on methodological and statistical aspects involved in the design, collection, and analysis of data collections in the Center. To learn more about the NCES, <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/about/" target="_blank">click here</a>.</p><p> Quick link to NCES Data Tools: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4</a></p><p> Quick link to Quick Tables and Figures: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCES Fast Facts (Note: The primary purpose of the Fast Facts website is to provide users with concise information on a range of educational issues, from early childhood to adult learning.): <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/#</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED®)</h3><p><strong><img width="180" height="79" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/79/481_fred-logo.rev.1407788243.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image481 lw_align_right" data-max-w="222" data-max-h="97"/>An online database consisting of more than 72,000 economic data time series from 54 national, international, public, and private sources.</strong> FRED®, created and maintained by Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, goes far beyond simply providing data: It combines data with a powerful mix of tools that help the user understand, interact with, display, and disseminate the data.</p><p> Quick link to data page: <a href="http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series" target="_blank">http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Congressional Budget Office</h3><p><img width="180" height="180" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/180/380_cbo-logo.rev.1406822035.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image380 lw_align_right" data-max-w="180" data-max-h="180"/>Since its founding in 1974, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process.</p><p> The agency is strictly nonpartisan and conducts objective, impartial analysis, which is evident in each of the dozens of reports and hundreds of cost estimates that its economists and policy analysts produce each year. CBO does not make policy recommendations, and each report and cost estimate discloses the agency’s assumptions and methodologies. <strong>CBO provides budgetary and economic information in a variety of ways and at various points in the legislative process.</strong> Products include baseline budget projections and economic forecasts, analysis of the President’s budget, cost estimates, analysis of federal mandates, working papers, and more.</p><p> Quick link to Products page: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products</a></p><p> Quick link to Topics: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/topics" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/topics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Internal Revenue Service: Tax Statistics</h3><p><img width="155" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image486 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg 2x" data-max-w="463" data-max-h="596"/>Find statistics on business tax, individual tax, charitable and exempt organizations, IRS operations and budget, and income (SOI), as well as statistics by form, products, publications, papers, and other IRS data.</p><p> Quick link to <strong>Tax Statistics, where you will find a wide range of tables, articles, and data</strong> that describe and measure elements of the U.S. tax system: <a href="http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2" target="_blank">http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>MapStats</h3><p> A feature of FedStats, MapStats allows users to search for <strong>state, county, city, congressional district, or Federal judicial district data</strong> (demographic, economic, and geographic).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/" target="_blank">http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>NOAA National Climatic Data Center</h3><p><img width="200" height="198" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image483 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 3x" data-max-w="954" data-max-h="945"/>NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation’s treasure of <strong>climate and historical weather data and information</strong>.</p><p> Quick link to home page: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCDC’s climate and weather datasets, products, and various web pages and resources: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links</a></p><p> Quick link to Text & Map Search: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>