• <div class="header-image" style="background-image: url(/live/image/gid/4/2756_V6N7Web_Header_small.rev.1533574420.jpg);">​</div><div class="header-background-color"/>

Examining Republican Proposals for Reform & Repealment to the Affordable Care Act

October 29, 2015

The Patient Protection Affordable Care Act (ACA) has faced partisan backlash since its enactment in 2010. There have been many calls to reform the law’s provisions, and there have also been actions made to eliminate its key provisions in the hopes of repealing the bill entirely. The Health, Education, and Welfare Branch took the time this week to examine the impacts that proposed reforms to the ACA’s provisions would have, including 1) private & employer-sponsored health insurance, 2) Medicaid, and 3) Medicare.

Private & Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance

Private health insurance consists of two main markets – employer-sponsored insurance and the individual private health insurance market. Policies either bought in the individual market or provided and subsidized via the employer-sponsored insurance pool can vary widely, from catastrophic coverage, cheap medical coverage that only covers emergency medical care, to so-called “Cadillac plans” that include coverage for gym memberships, designer glasses, and dental care.  The enactment of the ACA brought a great deal of changes to these two specific markets.

Currently, ACA provisions in the individual market ensure that: 1) plans cannot exclude individuals for pre-existing conditions or revoke health insurance; 2) requires that plans provide a minimum level of standard benefits (including preventive care); 3) establishes an adjusted community-rating system for pan premiums on the individual market, meaning that plans cannot charge sicker people more for insurance and can only adjust rates based on age and smoking status. The law also allows states to create individual “exchanges” – online websites where people can enter income and personal information, shop for coverage, and enroll in plans. Only a dozen or so states have established these exchanges, and the federal government has stepped in to provide a national exchange for the other states. On the exchanges, federal subsidies are provided to people under 400% of the federal poverty line so that they are able to afford coverage.  Possibly the most important part of the changes made to individual coverage, however, was the individual mandate. In order to prevent insurance markets from collapsing due to the increased enrollment of too many high-cost beneficiaries (e.g. sicker patients), the ACA required that every individual hold a health insurance policy meeting minimum federal standards or pay a penalty.[1] Mandating enrollment prevents the onset of a “death spiral”, where the healthiest patients leave a risk pool, resulting in higher premiums, which causes more relatively healthy people to leave the risk pool, and eventually resulting in a pool that is unsustainable for the insurer and the sickest patients.

Individual Market Enrollment 

Kaiser Family Foundation

The ACA extended a mandate to employer-sponsored insurance as well. Each employer with 51 or more full-time employees must provide health insurance that meets the federal standards, or pay a penalty. Small employers are excluded from this mandate because purchasing coverage would be especially costly for them. Any large employer that has an employee receiving a subsidy on the exchange to buy individual coverage must pay $2000 per employee (after the first 30 employees) as a penalty for not providing health care coverage. This mandate is intended to ensure that employers do not cut their health insurance plans after the individual exchanges become active (about 94% of large employers offered coverage before the passage of ACA)[2]

The most immediate effect of a total repeal of the ACA would be lost coverage. Without premium subsidies, many people (especially the poor and near-elderly) would not be able to afford the cost of their coverage and would drop their plans. In addition, without the individual mandate, many young, healthy people would drop their health insurance coverage even if they can afford it, simply to avoid the added expense. This would result in a death spiral- the loss of “young invincibles” in health insurance pools would cause coverage to become even more expensive for the older, sicker enrollees, some of whom may even get their coverage revoked due to health status.[3] Coverage under the individual exchanges would likely revert back to its position prior to ACA, when about 11 million people were covered under the individual market plans available; this represents a loss in coverage for almost 10 million people in the individual market alone.[4] Since almost all large employers provided insurance prior to the ACA, shifts in that market would be relatively minimal (although the repeal of the looming Cadillac Tax might cause employers to continue providing over-generous health coverage, driving up costs).

Republican plans to replace ACA typically remove most of the ACA’s reform to the individual market, including the individual mandate, coverage for individuals with pre-existing conditions, and the adjusted community rating system.[5] The loss of these provisions would result in a significant loss of coverage as described above, unless they were paired with another way of maintaining coverage for those with pre-existing conditions and low incomes. Many Republican plans replace the health insurance premium subsidies with tax credits of some kind, but many of these plans are not means-tested.[6] These tax credits would be helpful for those attempting to afford coverage, but would be somewhat regressive depending on how large they were and how they were written into the tax code.

 

Medicaid

Medicaid provides health coverage to millions of Americans, specifically low-income adults (those with incomes 138% below the federal poverty line), children, pregnant women, elderly adults and people with disabilities [7]. Medicaid is administered by states, however, it is funded jointly by states and the federal government[8]. The federal government pays states for a specified percentage of program expenditures determined by the Federal Medical Assistance Program (FMAP), which varies by state based on criteria such as per capita income. The regular average state FMAP is 57%, but ranges from 50% in wealthier states to 75% in states with lower per capita incomes (the maximum regular FMAP is 82%)[9].  In order for the ACA to achieve its goal of offering everyone access to affordable healthcare, it focused its efforts to expand Medicaid.  In doing so, the ACA has a provision that says it will provide full federal funding for individuals that were made newly eligible for Medicaid under its expansion, where eventually this rate will phase down to 90% in 2020 and beyond [10]. However, in 2012 this provision of the bill hit a major roadblock.

As laid out in the Medicaid expansion provision of the ACA, States must make Medicaid available to a greater number of low-income Americans by expanding the program, and if States did not comply with this requirement they risked losing all of federal funding for Medicaid [11]. Thus, some States felt that these funds had too many “strings attached” and believed that Congress was acting unconstitutionally by making States expand the program under the threat that they could potentially lose federal funds if they did not accomplish what Congress wanted them to do [12].  Consequently, on June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court found that the Medicaid expansion provision in the ACA was “unconstitutionally coercive of States” and, therefore, gave States the option to expand the Medicaid program if they wished[13]. In response, the Obama administration agreed to still fund nearly all of the costs of the expansion (100% for the first three years, phasing down to 90% in 2020 and all subsequent years), so it would not place an added burden to those States that agreed to expand [14]. However, only 28 states and D.C. have currently expanded the program, leaving about a total of 4 million people who are eligible for health insurance still uninsured[15]

Current Status of State Medicaid Expansion Decisions 

Kaiser Family Foundation

This was one such way members of the Republican party sought to do away with the ACA.  If Medicaid expansion did not go through at all then a large majority of the country would still be uninsured, risking a death spiral in the insurance market, and ultimately bringing the ACA to its end.  However, since the Supreme Court’s decision did not end the Medicaid expansion component of the ACA entirely, Republicans are still developing ways in which they can either alter or remove the provisions set up for Medicaid insurance.  There has been one proposal headed by House Budget Committee Chairman and Representative of Georgia’s sixth district, Tom Price, which calls to cut federal funding from Medicaid and replace the program with block grants.  

Block granting is a financial aid package that grants federal money to state and local government for use in social welfare programs in order to maintain accountability on the federal government for their portion of Medicaid funding[16]. However, if Medicaid were to be funded under a block grant it would not be as responsive to the program’s changing needs in situations like recessions, health care inflation, natural disasters, etc [17]. Furthermore, it would be difficult to allocate these funds equitably across states, and because of this adequate healthcare coverage would not be guaranteed [18]. Under Price’s plan, according to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the federal government would no longer pay a fixed share of states’ Medicaid costs, starting in 2017 [19]. Instead, states would get a fixed dollar amount of federal funding known as “State Flexibility Funds” (in addition to cutting federal funding to Medicaid by $913 billion over the next decade). However, the proposed block grant fund will not be able to provide the funds states need each year because the annual increase in the block grant funding average to about 4.7% less than Medicaid’s current projected decade growth rate [20]. Further, in order to make these federal funding cuts, states would likely use the expansive additional flexibility that this alternative plan would give them.  For example, the plan would likely “let states cap Medicaid enrollment and turn eligible people away from the program. It also would likely let states drop certain benefits that people with disabilities or other special health problems need”[21]. If this proposal were to pass, a number of states that have expanded Medicaid would probably reverse their expansion, or at least impose work requirements, premium or cost-sharing obligations, and other barriers that would dramatically reduce coverage[22]. In doing so, the combined Medicaid cut would reach about $1.8 trillion over ten years, which adds tens of millions of Americans to the ranks of the underinsured and uninsured[23]. Lastly, according to notable health law expert Timothy Jost, block granting Medicaid “would [also] certainly mean that states that have not [expanded Medicaid] so far [will not] do so in the future.”  This means that those 4 million people will likely not have access to affordable healthcare[24]

Thus, Republican proposals for immediate and drastic reforms to the ACA, specifically those calling for changes in Medicaid funding, carry a high risk of millions of Americans, especially those from vulnerable socioeconomic populations, becoming underinsured or uninsured .

 

Medicare

10 Year Medicare Spending Projections 

The Commonwealth Fund

The ACA has benefitted Medicare in a few major ways, including holding down the growth of Medicare rates and addressing gaps in preventative and prescription drug benefit[25]. The ACA has also improved Medicare by strengthening chronic care management and slowing the growth of spending. Since the ACA was passed, roughly 37 million Medicare beneficiaries received preventative services, while 8 million beneficiaries saved over $11.5 billion and projected program spending by the Congressional Budget Office from 2011 to 2020 dropped by $1.07 trillion[26].

However, Republicans seek to fully repeal the ACA, and have voted over fifty times on repealing or undermining the health care reform act[27]. Repealing the ACA would hold a unique challenge to Republican candidates, as ACA provisions currently make up a huge part of Medicare law [28]. In the past, Republicans proposed ending Medicare by replacing guaranteed benefits with a limited payment that goes directly to health insurance companies[29].  Under this proposed plan, an average 40 year old would need $350,000 more to pay for healthcare, while out-of-pocket costs for seniors would rise by $6,000 a year and the enrollment age would increase by two years[30]. The Republican’s 2016 budget proposal opens by calling for reform to Medicare, stating that it is unsustainable and that modifications would offer additional payment and coverage options in the future to increase coverage flexibility and a traditional fee-for-service payment option[31]. The budget also includes changes to liability laws to prevent unnecessary lawsuits against doctors, which would keep costs down[32].

None of the 2016 Republican presidential candidates have alternative plans if the ACA were to be repealed, but those who have spoken about reforms to Medicare believe it to be unsound[33]. Some of the candidates have supported Paul Ryan’s premium-support plan, and many want Medicare’s rules to change to restrict access of Medicare from younger workers and people who may be subverting the system[34]. During the recent debate, Jeb Bush proposed ending Medicare completely, while Marco Rubio suggested privatizing the system and George Pataki expressed an interested in shifting Medicare costs to seniors and the disabled[35]

One of the major benefits of the ACA has been the improvement of future funding of Medicare, whereby its Hospital Insurance trust fund will remain funded through 2030[36] . This date does not apply to coverage for physician and outpatient costs though, nor does it apply to Medicare prescription drug benefits, as the trust funds that provide funding for these sections of Medicare cannot go bankrupt[37].As the population of the US ages and baby boomers enter retirement, Medicare will only be used more. 

Thus, Medicare relies heavily on the provisions of the ACA, and repealing it would lead to unaffordable prescriptions, along with fewer wellness exams and screening services offered to those eligible for Medicare[38] Repealment of the bill would also mean that Medicare’s financial long term sustainability would be in jeopardy, placing the future health care of many elderly citizens at risk.

 


  [1] Ezekiel Emanuel, Reinventing American Healthcare(New York City: PublicAffairs, 2015), 202.

  [2] Ibid, 218-219.

  [3] Avik Roy, “Can Republicans Repeal Obamacare Without Disrupting Coverage For Tens Of Millions?”, Forbes. September 27th, 2014. 

  [4] Larry Levitt et al., “Data Note: How Has the Individual Insurance Market Grown Under the Affordable Care Act?”, Kaiser Family Foundation. May 12th, 2015. 

  [5] Timothy Jost, “If The ACA Were Repealed, Just What Would Replace It?”, Health Affairs Blog. April 14th, 2015.

  [6] Ibid.

  [7] “Medicaid.” Medicaid. October 25, 2015. Accessed October 25, 2015.

  [8] ibid

  [9] “Financing & Reimbursement.” Financing & Reimbursement. Accessed October 25, 2015.

  [10] Rudowitz, Robin. “Understanding How States Access the ACA Enhanced Medicaid Match Rates.” Understanding How States Access the ACA Enhanced Medicaid Match Rates. September 29, 2014. Accessed October 25, 2015. 

  [11] Howe, Amy.  “in Plain English: Conditions or unconstitutional coercion?” Supreme Court of the United States Blog. 

  [12] ibid

  [13] “A Guide to the Supreme Court’s Decision on the ACA’s Medicaid Expansion.The Henry J. Kaiser Foundation(2012): 1-4.  

  [14] ibid

  [15] Jost, Timothy. “If The ACA Were Repealed, Just What Would Replace It?” If The ACA Were Repealed, Just What Would Replace It? April 14, 2015. Accessed October 25, 2015. 

  [16] ibid

  [17] “Implications Of A Federal Block Grant Program For Medicaid.” Implications Of A Federal Block Grant Program For Medicaid. April 1, 2011. Accessed October 25, 2015. 

  [18] ibid

  [19] Park, Edwin. “Proposed Medicaid Block Grant Would Add Millions to Uninsured and Underinsured.” Proposed Medicaid Block Grant Would Add Millions to Uninsured and Underinsured. March 17, 2015. Accessed October 25, 2015. 

  [20] ibid

  [21] ibid

  [22] ibid

  [23] ibid

  [24] ibid

  [25] David, Karen, Stuart Guterman, and Farhan Bandeali. 2015. The Affordable Care Act and Medicare.June. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [26] ibid

  [27] Somanader, Tanya. 2015. What Would Happen If House Republicans Actually Repealed the Affordable Care Act?February 3. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [28] Jost, Timothy. 2015. If The ACA Were Repealed, Just What Would Replace It?April 14. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [29] Larson, John B. 2011. Five Things to Know About the GOP Plan for Medicare.July 1. Accessed October 25, 2015. 

  [30] ibid

  [31] Hopkins, Jamie. 2015. GOP 2016 Budget Proposal Seeks To Overhaul Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.March 17. Accessed 24 2015, October. 

  [32] ibid

  [33] Chen, Lanhee. 2015. GOP Candidates Must Offer Obamacare Alternatives.July 29. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [34] 2015. 2016 presidential candidates on federal assistance programs.Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [35] Altman, Nancy. 2015. Most 2016 GOP Presidential Candidates Would Push Seniors Into Poverty By Cutting Social Security.August 8. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [36] Van de Water, Paul N. 2015. Medicare Is Not “Bankrupt”.July 30. Accessed October 24, 2015. 

  [37] ibid

  [38] n.d. How Health Reform Affects Medicare.Accessed October 24, 2015. 

Student Blog Disclaimer
  • The views expressed on the Student Blog are the author’s opinions and don’t necessarily represent the Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative’s strategies, recommendations, or opinions.

PENN WHARTON PPI
RESOURCE SPOTLIGHT:

  • <h3>National Bureau of Economic Research (Public Use Data Archive)</h3><p><img width="180" height="43" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/43/478_nber.rev.1407530465.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image478 lw_align_right" data-max-w="329" data-max-h="79"/>Founded in 1920, the <strong>National Bureau of Economic Research</strong> is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization dedicated to promoting a greater understanding of how the economy works. The NBER is committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community.</p><p> Quick Link to <strong>Public Use Data Archive</strong>: <a href="http://www.nber.org/data/" target="_blank">http://www.nber.org/data/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Aviation Administration: Accident & Incident Data</h3><p><img width="100" height="100" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image80 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/100/height/100/80_faa-logo.rev.1402681347.jpg 3x" data-max-w="550" data-max-h="550"/>The NTSB issues an accident report following each investigation. These reports are available online for reports issued since 1996, with older reports coming online soon. The reports listing is sortable by the event date, report date, city, and state.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/" target="_blank">http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>National Center for Education Statistics</h3><p><strong><img width="400" height="80" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/400/height/80/479_nces.rev.1407787656.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image479 lw_align_right" data-max-w="400" data-max-h="80"/>The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the U.S. and other nations.</strong> NCES is located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences. NCES has an extensive Statistical Standards Program that consults and advises on methodological and statistical aspects involved in the design, collection, and analysis of data collections in the Center. To learn more about the NCES, <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/about/" target="_blank">click here</a>.</p><p> Quick link to NCES Data Tools: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/datatools/index.asp?DataToolSectionID=4</a></p><p> Quick link to Quick Tables and Figures: <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/quicktables/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCES Fast Facts (Note: The primary purpose of the Fast Facts website is to provide users with concise information on a range of educational issues, from early childhood to adult learning.): <a href="http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/" target="_blank">http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/#</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>NOAA National Climatic Data Center</h3><p><img width="200" height="198" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image483 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/198/483_noaa_logo.rev.1407788692.jpg 3x" data-max-w="954" data-max-h="945"/>NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is responsible for preserving, monitoring, assessing, and providing public access to the Nation’s treasure of <strong>climate and historical weather data and information</strong>.</p><p> Quick link to home page: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/</a></p><p> Quick link to NCDC’s climate and weather datasets, products, and various web pages and resources: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/quick-links</a></p><p> Quick link to Text & Map Search: <a href="http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/" target="_blank">http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>USDA Nutrition Assistance Data</h3><p><img width="180" height="124" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image485 lw_align_right" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/180/height/124/485_usda_logo.rev.1407789238.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1233" data-max-h="850"/>Data and research regarding the following <strong>USDA Nutrition Assistance</strong> programs are available through this site:</p><ul><li>Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) </li><li>Food Distribution Programs </li><li>School Meals </li><li>Women, Infants and Children </li></ul><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics" target="_blank">http://www.fns.usda.gov/data-and-statistics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Congressional Budget Office</h3><p><img width="180" height="180" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/180/380_cbo-logo.rev.1406822035.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image380 lw_align_right" data-max-w="180" data-max-h="180"/>Since its founding in 1974, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has produced independent analyses of budgetary and economic issues to support the Congressional budget process.</p><p> The agency is strictly nonpartisan and conducts objective, impartial analysis, which is evident in each of the dozens of reports and hundreds of cost estimates that its economists and policy analysts produce each year. CBO does not make policy recommendations, and each report and cost estimate discloses the agency’s assumptions and methodologies. <strong>CBO provides budgetary and economic information in a variety of ways and at various points in the legislative process.</strong> Products include baseline budget projections and economic forecasts, analysis of the President’s budget, cost estimates, analysis of federal mandates, working papers, and more.</p><p> Quick link to Products page: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/about/our-products</a></p><p> Quick link to Topics: <a href="http://www.cbo.gov/topics" target="_blank">http://www.cbo.gov/topics</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The World Bank Data (U.S.)</h3><p><img width="130" height="118" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image484 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/130/height/118/484_world-bank-logo.rev.1407788945.jpg 3x" data-max-w="1406" data-max-h="1275"/>The <strong>World Bank</strong> provides World Development Indicators, Surveys, and data on Finances and Climate Change.</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states" target="_blank">http://data.worldbank.org/country/united-states</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED®)</h3><p><strong><img width="180" height="79" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/180/height/79/481_fred-logo.rev.1407788243.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image481 lw_align_right" data-max-w="222" data-max-h="97"/>An online database consisting of more than 72,000 economic data time series from 54 national, international, public, and private sources.</strong> FRED®, created and maintained by Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, goes far beyond simply providing data: It combines data with a powerful mix of tools that help the user understand, interact with, display, and disseminate the data.</p><p> Quick link to data page: <a href="http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series" target="_blank">http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/tags/series</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>The Penn World Table</h3><p> The Penn World Table provides purchasing power parity and national income accounts converted to international prices for 189 countries/territories for some or all of the years 1950-2010.</p><p><a href="https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt71/pwt71_form.php" target="_blank">Quick link.</a> </p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>HUD State of the Cities Data Systems</h3><p><strong><img width="200" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image482 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 2x, /live/image/scale/3x/gid/4/width/200/height/200/482_hud_logo.rev.1407788472.jpg 3x" data-max-w="612" data-max-h="613"/>The SOCDS provides data for individual Metropolitan Areas, Central Cities, and Suburbs.</strong> It is a portal for non-national data made available through a number of outside institutions (e.g. Census, BLS, FBI and others).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html" target="_blank">http://www.huduser.org/portal/datasets/socds.html</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>Internal Revenue Service: Tax Statistics</h3><p><img width="155" height="200" alt="" src="/live/image/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg" class="lw_image lw_image486 lw_align_left" srcset="/live/image/scale/2x/gid/4/width/155/height/200/486_irs_logo.rev.1407789424.jpg 2x" data-max-w="463" data-max-h="596"/>Find statistics on business tax, individual tax, charitable and exempt organizations, IRS operations and budget, and income (SOI), as well as statistics by form, products, publications, papers, and other IRS data.</p><p> Quick link to <strong>Tax Statistics, where you will find a wide range of tables, articles, and data</strong> that describe and measure elements of the U.S. tax system: <a href="http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2" target="_blank">http://www.irs.gov/uac/Tax-Stats-2</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>
  • <h3>MapStats</h3><p> A feature of FedStats, MapStats allows users to search for <strong>state, county, city, congressional district, or Federal judicial district data</strong> (demographic, economic, and geographic).</p><p> Quick link: <a href="http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/" target="_blank">http://www.fedstats.gov/mapstats/</a></p><p>See all <a href="/data-resources/">data and resources</a> »</p>